Learn about your senses
The sense of sight is the most important sense in learning - 80% of what we remember, we saw. Sight gives us information about where we are, what is happening and what is going to happen. The iris pattern of our eye is unique, as are our fingerprints.
The human eye can distinguish up to 10 million colors (including 500 shades of gray), but it can not see ultraviolet light. The image perceived by the eye is upside down – it is only our brain that processes the received image to its actual state.
The eye works constantly, but the muscles that are responsible for the movements of the eyeball and eyelid need a break. If they are tired, we feel great discomfort and the symptoms hindering good vision may increase. Our eyes begin to burn, water, or we feel "heavy eyelids" or even get a headache. It's a sign that it's time to relax!
Hearing is one of the basic human senses! In our everyday life, we usually don't remember its crucial role - we just assume that it is an obvious part of our lives.
The human ear is responsible for receiving external waves, which are later transformed into mechanical vibrations and then into nerve impulses. The ear is made up of the outer, middle and inner ear. The outer and middle ear belong exclusively to the hearing organ, and the inner ear contains receptors for both the hearing organ and balance.
Sensory system has control over the sense of touch. It divides the sensation into deep and surface ones. Surface sensation receives touch and vibration, and also responds to pain and temperature change. Receiving stimuli is the task of sensory receptors.
Touch is the sense that is formed first - around the 7th week of fetal life. It is the basic tool for a newborn to learn about the world (when it still does not see and hear well).
In humans, touch is needed not only for proper emotional development, but also physical wellbeing. People deprived of physical contact more often develop various ailments. If patients in hospitals are often touched by staff, they better endure unpleasant procedures and recover better. Massages used in seriously or terminally ill patients help overcome pain, reduce anxiety and a sense of alienation.
The receptor cells called taste buds are responsible for the taste. Traditionally, five types of taste buds are distinguished in humans - individual ones are responsible for receiving such flavors as:
• sweet taste,
• salty taste,
• bitter taste,
• sour taste,
• umami taste (sometimes referred to as meaty taste).
The taste buds are arranged on the tongue, palate, throat epithelium, epiglottis and upper esophagus. An adult has over 10,000 taste buds. A newborn feels all the flavors more intensively than an adult. The taste buds densely cover his/her mouth. Around the age of 10, some of them disappear, and the sense of taste is no longer as sharp.
Fragrances are the oldest form of communication between living organisms, and the brain center responsible for recognizing fragrances is one of the oldest parts of the brain! In humans, the organ of smell is located in the upper part of the nasal cavity - it is formed by the olfactory epithelium, which contains receptor cells, of which there are about 5 million in an adult (about 200 million in a dog).
Aromatic stimuli reach our brain faster and more directly than signals from other sense organs. Because they carry specific, biologically important information, the body quickly responds to them - often without our awareness. When, during a meal, the nose reports to the brain that the food is stale, the stomach is instructed to throw away poisonous contents immediately.
Smell begins to function in our fetal life, and immediately after birth, the smell of the mother's breast helps even a sleeping newborn to find her nipple. Loss of smell (so-called anosmia) is not dangerous to humans, yet has an impact on their overall health. Anosmia sufferers usually claim that they have lost their taste, not smell.